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Questions & Answers

If you can't find the answer here, feel free to submit a question below or request an appointment.

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Listed below we have some most commonly asked questions by you, please filter through the questions before submitting one. You can filter through the questions using the procedures filter, if you are unfamiliar with the terminology, why not look at the Diagnose Your Shoulder Pain section for more information. If your injury is sports related, you can filter through our common Injuries Related to Rugby and Injuries Related to Cricket section for more information.

Here at The Cape Shoulder Institute, we try to answer each of your questions as best we can as fast as we can.

Procedures

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Injections around the shoulder joint are necessary for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons in the course of evaluation of shoulder pain. The injection consists of local anaesthesia and cortisone, either separately or mixed together.

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Fractures of the proximal humerus (ball) account for 5-15 % of all fractures. Majority of these occur in elderly individuals with osteoporosis, and are a cause of major morbidity. In younger individuals, these fractures occur after high-velocity trauma.

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Most tears are as a result of degeneration or “wear and tear”. The circulation to the tendon becomes impaired in older people and leads to degenerative tears.

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Os-acromiale is a loose / mobile acromion of the shoulder which may or may not cause pain. In the most cases the loose acromion may go undetected as it does not lead to any painful symptoms.

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The subscapularis is a most important muscle at the anterior (front) of the shoulder joint. It is often mentioned separately from the rest of the rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor) but is essentially part of this group of muscles.

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The shoulder consists of a ball (humeral head) and socket (glenoid). The ball is stabilized in the socket by a cartilage rim (“labrum”, which means “lip”) and the ligaments, which attach to the labrum.

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Shoulder dislocations occur when the ball (humeral head) of the shoulder is forced out of the socket (glenoid). Separation or dislocation can also occur of the smaller joint on top of the shoulder known as the AC joint (acromio-clavicular).

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The pectoralis major (large pectoral) is a large muscle on the front of the upper chest and arm.

There are 2 “heads” – the clavicular and sterno-costal.

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Shoulder joint replacement procedures are mostly done for osteo-arthritis of joints. In the normal joint, cartilage covers both bony surfaces of the ball and socket.

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The acromio-clavicular joint is between the clavicle (collar bone) and the acromion (shoulder bone). This injury usually results from a fall onto the tip of the shoulder or on to the back of the shoulder.

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This is the small joint on the top of the shoulder. It connects the tip of the clavicle (collar bone) to the acromion (shoulder bone). It is held together by ligaments between the two bones as well as strong ligaments between the collar bone and the coracoid (a protrusion from the shoulder blade).

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The Biceps is an upper arm muscle that acts across the shoulder and elbow joints. At the elbow, it helps to bend the joint. At the shoulder, its function is more complex and incompletely understood.

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S.L.A.P. is an acronym for Superior Labrum Anterior Posterior, which simply means that the attachment of the long tendon of the biceps is torn away from the upper end of the shoulder socket. (Superior Labrum = Biceps attachment, Anterior = front, Posterior = back).

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The clavicle is prone to fracture because of its very superficial localisation. A fall onto the arm, a lateral blow or a direct impact over the clavicle can cause a fracture.

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Suprascapular nerve injuries have become increasingly recognized as a cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction1. Recent advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques have simplified the management of injuries of this nerve

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The thoracic outlet is the upper aperture of the chest, between the collar bone and the first rib.This narrow passageway is crowded with blood vessels that run out of the chest to the arm (subclavian vein and artery), as well as the nerves that exit the spine in the neck to supply the arm.

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A shoulder condition found mostly in people in the 40-60 year old age group.
The overlying acromion may squeeze or impinge upon the rotator cuff, causing inflammation and pain when elevating the arm.

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The shoulder joint (gleno-humeral joint) is one of the most mobile joints in the body. The gleno-humeral joint consists of a ball (humeral head) and socket (glenoid). As in any other joint, the bone surfaces are covered with a specialised cartilage layer.

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A calcium deposit accumulates in one of the tendons of the shoulder. The cause is unknown and not related to injury, diet or osteoporosis. The patient most commonly affected is a female 40-50 years of age, but other age groups and males are regularly affected.

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Frozen Shoulder is a condition with no known cause in the majority of cases, with spontaneous onset. It is most common in females (40-50 years) but could affect males and other age groups.

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The shoulder joint (gleno-humeral joint) is one of the most mobile joints in the body. The gleno-humeral joint consists of a ball (humeral head) and socket (glenoid). As in any other joint, the bone surfaces are covered with a specialised cartilage layer.

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