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Arthroscopic

At the Cape Shoulder Institute, a large proportion of surgical procedures are performed arthroscopically.

Fractures of the proximal humerus (ball) account for 5-15 % of all fractures. Majority of these occur in elderly individuals with osteoporosis, and are a cause of major morbidity. In younger individuals, these fractures occur after high-velocity trauma.

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Most tears are as a result of degeneration or “wear and tear”. The circulation to the tendon becomes impaired in older people and leads to degenerative tears.

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The subscapularis is a most important muscle at the anterior (front) of the shoulder joint. It is often mentioned separately from the rest of the rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor) but is essentially part of this group of muscles.

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The shoulder consists of a ball (humeral head) and socket (glenoid). The ball is stabilized in the socket by a cartilage rim (“labrum”, which means “lip”) and the ligaments, which attach to the labrum.

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Shoulder dislocations occur when the ball (humeral head) of the shoulder is forced out of the socket (glenoid). Separation or dislocation can also occur of the smaller joint on top of the shoulder known as the AC joint (acromio-clavicular).

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This is the small joint on the top of the shoulder. It connects the tip of the clavicle (collar bone) to the acromion (shoulder bone). It is held together by ligaments between the two bones as well as strong ligaments between the collar bone and the coracoid (a protrusion from the shoulder blade).

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The Biceps is an upper arm muscle that acts across the shoulder and elbow joints. At the elbow, it helps to bend the joint. At the shoulder, its function is more complex and incompletely understood.

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S.L.A.P. is an acronym for Superior Labrum Anterior Posterior, which simply means that the attachment of the long tendon of the biceps is torn away from the upper end of the shoulder socket. (Superior Labrum = Biceps attachment, Anterior = front, Posterior = back).

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Suprascapular nerve injuries have become increasingly recognized as a cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction1. Recent advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques have simplified the management of injuries of this nerve

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A shoulder condition found mostly in people in the 40-60 year old age group.
The overlying acromion may squeeze or impinge upon the rotator cuff, causing inflammation and pain when elevating the arm.

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